MaPA and EdiPA: two analytical tools for text-sound-image interrelations in music videos
ResumoTwo consecutive analytical tools are presented here: MaPA (Map of Audiovisual Performance) and EdiPA (Audiovisual Performance Edition). I introduce these tools as a possible way of organizing and representing the content of music videos as primary sources of analysis. Both tools aim at understanding the interrelationsof the trinomial text-sound-image which is fundamental to the interaction between musical performance and its context. The construction of a MaPA begins with the selection of isolated photograms or a sequence of photograms extracted from a video with the intention to show the relationships between music and staging elements (facial expressions, larger body gestures, props, lighting, camera effects, image manipulation, filming techniques etc.). The EdiPA is built to graphically highlight fundamental sound elements which are transcribed from the video with some kind of music notation (such as the traditional score, lead sheets, graphics, spectrograms etc.) over which photograms from MaPAs are overlaid with its respective video timings (in minutes and seconds) and a succinct textual information to facilitate the comprehension of the text-sound-image trinomial. The use of both analytical tools is illustrated here with various types of MaPAs and EdiPAs samples, from simple ones to more complex ones. I also propose the recognition of three types of music video recordings (illustrated here with performances of Brazilian singer Elis Regina and singer-composer Caetano Veloso), which consider the interference of the video direction and the levels of freedom and planning of the musicians’ performance: (1) non-spontaneous performances, (2) quasi-spontaneous performances (3) spontaneous performances.